What Is The Geographic Profile Of Nigeria?

JEROME MICHAEL EBRUPHIYO Wednesday, September 15, 2021 Basis

This post will provide information on "What is the geographic profile of Nigeria?" as well as provide answers to questions like: What are the main geographical features of Nigeria? What is the geographical position of Nigeria? What is the geography and climate of Nigeria? How many geographical regions are in Nigeria?

Geographic Profile of Nigeria

Nigeria is a country in West Africa. Nigeria shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the south and it borders Lake Chad to the northeast. Noted geographical features in Nigeria include the Adamawa Plateau, Mambilla Plateau, Jos Plateau, Obudu Plateau, the Niger River, Benue River, and Niger Delta. Nigeria is found in the tropics, where the climate is seasonally damp and very humid. Nigeria is affected by four climate types; these climate types are generally gradated from south to North. The geographic profile of Nigeria are listed below.

1. Climatic Condition Of Nigeria

The temperature ranges are almost constant throughout the year; for example, Warri in the southern part of Nigeria records a maximum of 28 °C (82.4 °F) for its hottest month while its lowest temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F) in its coldest month. The southern part of Nigeria experiences heavy and abundant rainfall. These storms are usually convectional in nature because of the region's proximity to the equatorial belt. The annual rainfall received in this region is very high. The tropical savanna climate (Aw) or tropical wet and dry climate is extensive in area and covers most of western to central Nigeria, where it exerts enormous influence on the region.

2. Tropical Continental Air Mass of Nigeria

The tropical continental air mass, locally known as the Harmattan of Nigeria is a wind originating from North Africa which crosses the Sahara into West Africa. This air mass dominates Nigeria's climate during the dry season from December to March. The tropical continental air mass is dusty and creates a haze within the atmosphere when it predominates. The haze is as a result of the dust within the air mass limiting visibility and blocking much of the sun's rays from reaching the earth. It is also a dry air mass formed over land in an area close to the equator. The air mass generally has no precipitation since it forms in the Sahara, generating dust rather than moisture. The air mass creates low visibility which hampers transportation, but its presence brings some relief to farmers since the low humidity present in the air quickens the drying of their crops.

3. Temperature Of Nigeria

Nigeria's seasons and temperature variance are determined by rainfall with rainy season and dry season being the major seasons in Nigeria. The rainy season of Nigeria brings in cooler weather to the country as a result of an increased cloud cover that acts as a blockage of the intense sunshine of the tropics by blocking much of the suns rays in the rainy season; this in turn cools the land, and the winds above the ground remain cool thereby making for cooler temperatures during the rainy season. But afternoons in the rainy season can be hot and humid. In the rainy season it is damp, and the rainfalls are usually abundant.

4. Topography of Nigeria

Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the Niger and Benue River valleys, which merge into each other and form a "y" shaped confluence at Lokoja.[11] Plains rise to the north of the valleys. To the southwest of the Niger there is "rugged" highland, and to the southeast of the Benue hills and mountains are found all the way to the border with Cameroon. Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast.

5. Vegetation Map of Nigeria.

Nigeria is covered by three types of vegetation: forests (where there is significant tree cover), savannahs (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees), and montane land (least common and mainly found in the mountains near the Cameroon border. Both the forest zone and the savannah zone are divided into three parts

6. Natural Resources and Land Use

Nigeria's natural resources include but are not limited to petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, gold, silver, natural gas, hydropower, and arable land.

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