What Is Money Laundring: Effects of Money Laundring on Nigeria Economy

Nuelson Penuel Sunday, June 11, 2023 Basis

In this money laundering post, you will learn about overview of money laundering, types of money laundering, advantages of money laundering on Nigeria economy, how money laundering started in Nigeria, how money laundering can b avoided just to mention but few.

Overview of Money Laundring in Nigeria

Money laundering, which is the illegal process of hiding and disguising the proceeds of crime, is a serious problem in Nigeria. The country has been ranked as one of the largest sources of illicit financial flows (IFFs) in the world. According to the Global Financial Integrity (GFI) report, Nigeria lost over $157.5 billion to IFFs between 2003 and 2012. There are several factors that contribute to the prevalence of money laundering in Nigeria, including political corruption, weak regulatory systems, and the country's status as a major oil producer. Criminals also use various tactics, including complex financial transactions, to conceal the origin of their illegal proceeds. To combat money laundering in Nigeria, several legislative and regulatory measures have been put in place. For example, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) requires banks and other financial institutions to implement strict Know Your Customer (KYC) protocols and anti-money laundering (AML) policies. The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Nigeria's anti-corruption agency, is also working to investigate and prosecute those involved in money laundering activities. However, despite these efforts, the problem of money laundering persists in Nigeria. More needs to be done to strengthen the country's regulatory framework, increase enforcement, and improve international cooperation to combat financial crime.

Types of Money Laundring

There are different types of money laundering, and they often involve sophisticated schemes designed to hide the origin of illicit funds. The following are the most common types of money laundering: 1. Structuring: also called "smurfing," is a technique used to avoid reporting requirements by breaking down large sums of money into smaller transactions and depositing them into different accounts. 2. Trade-based laundering: involves using legitimate international trade transactions to move money across borders. For example, criminals can overvalue or undervalue goods imported or exported to hide the movement of illegal funds. 3. Shell company schemes: involves setting up fake companies to disguise the source and destination of illegal funds. 4. Real estate laundering: involves buying and selling real estate properties to move money across borders while obscuring the source of the funds. 5. Cash-intensive businesses: involves using businesses like casinos, car washes, and restaurants, which generate a lot of cash flow, to conceal illegal cash transactions. 6. Digital currency laundering: involves using virtual currencies like Bitcoin to move funds between accounts anonymously. 7. Investment laundering: involves disguising dirty money through investment in legitimate businesses or financial instruments. These are just a few of the many ways criminals launder money. Combating money laundering requires constant monitoring and updating of detection methods to stay ahead of the evolving tactics used by criminals.

Effect of Money Laundring on Nigeria Economy

The following are some of the effects of money laundering on Nigeria economy: Money laundering has an adverse effect on the Nigerian economy. The following are some of the impacts: 1. Loss of government revenue: Money laundering erodes Nigeria's revenue base as it involves evading taxes, tariffs, and customs duties. This can lead to a reduction in government revenue, which is vital for sustaining social programs and development projects. 2. Inflation: Money laundering can create an excess supply of money within the economy, leading to inflation and a rise in prices. 3. Corruption: Money laundering often involves bribery and corruption, which undermines the integrity of the Nigerian system and makes it difficult to attract foreign investments. 4. Reduced Foreign Direct Investment: Money laundering can also result in reduced foreign direct investment due to the negative image it portrays of the country, making investors hesitant to do business in Nigeria. 5. Damage to financial sector: Money laundering can undermine Nigeria's financial sector by weakening trust and confidence in financial institutions. 6. Criminal Activities: Money laundering facilitates criminal activities, including fraud, corruption, terrorism financing, and drug trafficking, which can fuel social unrest and instability.

How Money Laundring Started in Nigeria

Money laundering in Nigeria can be traced back to the 1980s when the country experienced a boom in the oil industry. This created vast amounts of wealth for a few individuals who sought to hide the origin of their wealth. The increase in corruption, fraud, and other financial crimes also contributed to the rise of money laundering in the country. Organized criminal groups, drug traffickers, and terrorist organizations began to use Nigeria as a hub for their illegal activities. They laundered their illicit proceeds through the country's financial system, taking advantage of weak regulatory systems and porous borders. Furthermore, the introduction of foreign exchange controls by the Nigerian government in the 1980s contributed to the rise of money laundering. This led to the emergence of black markets where individuals could exchange their currencies for foreign currencies at inflated rates, giving rise to large profits that were often laundered through the financial system.

Penalties for Money Laundring in Nigeria

The penalties for money laundering vary depending on the jurisdiction and severity of the offence. In Nigeria, the Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act of 2011 provides for penalties and punishments for various offences related to money laundering. According to the Act, an individual convicted of money laundering can face imprisonment for a term of not less than two years and not more than seven years, or a fine of not less than N5 million and not more than N25 million. In addition, individuals found guilty of aiding, abetting, or conspiracy to commit money laundering can also be punished with imprisonment for a term of not less than two years and not more than five years or a fine of not less than N1 million and not more than N5 million. For corporate bodies, the penalty for money laundering is a fine of not less than N25 million and not more than N250 million or a sum equivalent to 10% of the cash laundered, whichever is greater. Furthermore, convicted individuals or corporate bodies can also be ordered to forfeit the proceeds of their criminal activity to the government.

How Can Money Laundring be Avoided in Nigeria?

Money laundering can be avoided by implementing a robust anti-money laundering (AML) program. Below are some key components of an effective AML program: 1. Know Your Customer (KYC) - Financial institutions and businesses should have clear KYC policies and procedures in place to verify the identity of their customers. 2. Suspicious Activity Monitoring - Regular monitoring of customer transactions help to identify and report suspicious activities. 3. Risk Assessment - A comprehensive risk assessment should be conducted to evaluate the potential for money laundering and the level of risk associated with different customers. 4. Employee training - All employees should receive regular AML training to ensure they understand their responsibilities and can recognize suspicious activities. 5. Record Keeping - Proper record-keeping helps to detect and deter money laundering activities. Accurate and up-to-date records also assist in investigations. 6. Collaboration - Collaboration with law enforcement agencies and other financial institutions can help to prevent and detect money laundering activities. 7. Service Providers' Due Diligence - Financial institutions or businesses have to conduct background checks on its service providers to be sure they adhere to the same or equal AML/CFT standards as the institution or business. By implementing these and other measures, organizations can effectively reduce the risk of money laundering and ensure compliance with AML laws and regulations.


In summary, money laundering poses a severe threat to Nigeria's economic growth and stability. It is therefore essential to take steps to combat this illicit activity. This can include enforcing anti-money laundering laws, strengthening regulatory frameworks, and increasing public awareness of the dangers of money laundering. Furthermore, money laundering in Nigeria started as a result of the country's economic growth, corruption, fraud, financial crimes, and weak regulatory systems, which allowed criminals to exploit the system to hide their illicit proceeds. In addition, money laundering penalties in Nigeria include imprisonment, fines, forfeiture of proceeds of criminal activity, and penalties for aiding, abetting, or conspiracy to commit money laundering.

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