What are the Types of Operating System

Nuelson Penuel Wednesday, November 16, 2022 Technology

Types of Operating System In this article, you will learn about the different types of operating system, advantages and disadvantages of different types of operating and their examples. To understand what the term operating system is, check my previous articled titled operating system and their functions
types of operating system

Batch Processing Operating System

This is a type of operating system that do not interact with the computer direct. In other words, any interaction that occurs between an end user and the computer does occur in the OS system. Rather, the user would have to prepare his job on punch in the batch form and then give to the computer operator. The rest now depends on the system operator whose duty is to arrange the tasks that are similar and have the same requirements in a group for execution or processing. The purpose of arranging or sorting the similar tasks in a group is to speed up the processing.

Examples of Batch Processing Operating System

The following are examples of batch processing operating system:
  1. Transaction System
  2. Bank Invoice System
  3. Daily Report
  4. Payroll System
  5. Research Section

Characteristics of Batch Operating System

Batch operating system has various characteristics which are:
  1. Jobs are executed in the order they are been programmed i.e first in first out.
  2. An operator must be trained specially for this system
  3. A user does not have direction interaction with the system but through the computer operator
  4. Jobs that are similar and have the same requirements are grouped into batch for quick processing
  5. Once the execution of a job is completed, the OS will free the memory of the CPU for other jobs

Advantages of Batch Processing Operating System

Though the batch processing operating system is somehow backward in functionalities, it also have some advantages which are:
  1. The batch can be shared by multiple users
  2. It makes the management of repeated tasks in the batch system easier
  3. There is less idle time for the batch system
  4. Its ability to know the next task to execute and how long it will take relieves the processor of stress
  5. It is easy to schedule batch jobs for execution i.e jobs that the system can process when it's less busy

Disadvantages of Batch Processing Operating Systems

The following are some of the disadvantages of batch processing operating system:
  1. Debugging of error in this system is difficult
  2. Failure in any of the jobs in processing will cause the others to wait
  3. Its operation is mainly depend on the computer operator
  4. It is costly to acquire

Time Sharing Operating System

Time sharing operating system operates according to its name. In this system, multiple users can use the computer and share the CPU's time simultaneously. But, each user is allocated a time slice also known as quantum in a Round Robin form. During jobs' execution, the OS will monitored the current job to see if its allocated time is over or the job is been completed. If any of these conditions is found, the OS will move to the next job and execute it immediately. Unlike the batch processing operating system, interaction between user and the computer is done in OS. Hence, the every user can execute its tasks without a trained computer operator.

Examples of Time Sharing Operating System

The following are some examples of time sharing operating system.
  1. Linux
  2. Unix
  3. Multics
  4. Windows 2000 server
  5. Windows NT server
  6. TOPS-10 (DEC)
  7. TOPS-20 (DEC)

Advantages of Time Sharing Operating System

Some of the advantages of time sharing OS are:
  1. Multiple users can use the computer simultaneously and smoothly
  2. Each job is allocated the same amount of time otherwise known as time slice or quantum
  3. It has the ability to run more than one programs simultaneously
  4. It makes CPU become more productive as it reduces the CPU's idle time

Disadvantages of Time Sharing Operating System

Though time sharing OS has some advantages, it still has its own flaws which are:
  1. Integrity and security of users data and programs are not guaranteed
  2. There is less reliability in this OS
  3. There is problem in data communication
  4. It usually consumed a lot of resources therefore requires special operating system
  5. Since it can executes multiple jobs and applications at the same time, there is chances of the system getting hang during switching between different jobs.

Distributed Operating System

This is a type of operating system were all computers are connected to a shared network as well as share files with each other. In this kind of system, a user of one system can access the files and applications in other systems in as much both are connected to the same network. However, each of the systems has their own memory and CPU therefore not depend on others for files storage and memory usage. Furthermore, in this system the processors are connected through communication mediums such as telephone line and high speed buses in which every processor has its own resources and memory.

Characteristics of Distributed Operating System

Some of the features are:
  1. Each of the systems connected has their own local storage and resources
  2. All systems are connected via a shared network
  3. These type of OS are expensive to acquire

Advantages of Distributed Operating System

Advantages of this system are:
  1. The failure of one system does not stop the operation of others
  2. The sharing of resources within the connected system makes its performance outstanding to single systems
  3. Files in one system can be accessed via another system connected to the same network
  4. Sharing of information is very fast due to the use of electronic mail
  5. The speed of processing is improved while delay is reduce to some extent

Disadvantages of Distributed Operating System

  1. It is an expensively OS to acquire
  2. The sharing of files amongst systems connected to the network makes it vulnerable
  3. Transmission of large data or files requires huge amount of bandwidth
  4. Jobs execution may stop was the network is tempered with or went off
  5. Overload issues may occur if proper care is not taken

Network Operating System

This type of operating system uses a local area network to establish connection between multiple computers and devices as well as managing the network resources effectively. It allows all users that are connected to the network to know about the underlying configuration of the other as well as connected users. It also gives the privilege to share files, printers, applications, security e.t.c.

Examples of Network Operating System

  1. Ms Windows Server 2003 and 2008
  2. Linux
  3. UNIX
  4. Novell NetWare
  5. Mac OS X, etc.

Advantages of Network Operating System

The following are some of the advantages of network operating system:
  1. There is a centralized server that other systems can remotely connect to.
  2. Security monitory, prevention and control can be handled in server side.
  3. Upgrade and integration of recent technologies and hardware in this system is easier.
  4. The servers are highly scalable

Disadvantages of Network Operating System

The following are some disadvantages of this OS.
  • The whole connection will go offline once the server is down
  • There is need for regular update and maintenance
  • It is expensive to acquire
  • Real-Time Operating System

    This operating system is named according to its core function. As the name suggested, it is an Operating System that is developed for real-time applications. In real-time applications, data are processed in a fixed small duration of time. RTOS allows multiple processes to be processed in a short interval of time. In other words, it can be referred to as an OS that is used in an environment where data to be process needs to be completed in a short period of time. RTOS is classified into types based on time constraint and these are; a. Hard Real-Time Operating Systems In this type of RTOS, time is one of the most critical factor that is put into consideration. The time required for a task to be achieved must be strictly adhere to else the end result might be disastrous and can lead to failure or damage of the proposed project. In simplified terms, Hard RTOS is a system that any result generated after the stipulated time might lead to fatal error. Examples of hard real-time operating system include: chemical and nuclear plant control, pacemakers, autopilot system in plane, diagnosis control system e.t.c. b. Soft Real-Time Operating Systems In Soft Real-Time Operating System, the schedule time can be a little bit exceeded yet the output will be useful but there will be a performance degradation. In a more simplified terms, the deadline for a specific task can only be delayed to an extent. In other words, it is recommended for tasks where timing is less critical. Examples of Soft RTOS are data management, weather station, smart phones, mobile communication, cameras, online transaction etc. c. Soft Real-Time Operating Systems In this type of RTOS, the output generated after the deadline is useless to the system but however does not caused any damage. Examples of this are multimedia products, online image processing e.t.c

    Components of Real-Time Operating System/

    Scheduler: This specifies schedule for all execution of tasks of processes. Nevertheless, all tasks are performed by priority system. This type of component of RTOS defines the schedule for all execution of entire tasks of process, but mostly all tasks are performed by priority system. Synchronization Mechanism: This component help RTOS in handling different tasks in a parallel in order to improve or boost the system's performance. Memory Management: This is an important component of the RTOS as it helps to allocate memory space to each program in the system. Interrupt Service Mechanism: It is used for handling interrupt when it occurs. I/O Management: This component helps to provide good interface between input/output devices of the computer system Fast Dispatch Latency: This helps the RTOS to maintain the gap between the intervals of completed tasks.

    Advantages of Real-time Operating System

    The following are some advantages of RTOS:
    1. Allocation of memory is properly done
    2. It makes jobs to be completed in a short period of time
    3. It is an error free operating system
    4. It is suitable for embedded systems due to its small size in nature
    5. Every task in RTOS is performed in a predefined time frame
    6. It has more speed up and CPU portability

    Advantages of Real-time Operating System

    Some disadvantages of Real-time Operating System are:
    1. Only few number of tasks can run simultaneously to avoid errors
    2. Failure to keep to stipulated time may render the output useless
    3. It consume huge amount of the system resources therefore makes it to be very expensive to acquire
    4. Its thread priority is very poor
    5. It can't perform multi threading and multi tasking for a long time
    6. It can only switch fewer tasks

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