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What Are The Top 10 Functions Of A Civil Servant/Civil Service In Nigeria?

Investor Monday, May 2, 2022 Basis

 

Introduction

This article will give information on who a civil servant is, what is meant by the term "civil service" brief history on how civil service/civil servant came into existence and lots more.

What is Civil Service?

The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

Who is a Civil Servant?

A civil servant, also known as a public servant, is a person employed in the public sector by a government department or agency for public sector undertakings. Civil servants work for central and state governments, and answer to the government, not a political party.

Brief History of Civil Service/Civil Servant

The origin of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China. The Imperial exam based on merit was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree. Originally appointments to the bureaucracy were based on the patronage of aristocrats; During Han dynasty, Emperor Wu of Han established the xiaolian system of recommendation by superiors for appointments to office. In the areas of administration, especially the military, appointments were based solely on merit. This was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics. After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy regressed into a semi-merit system known as the nine-rank system. This system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty (581–618), which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation. The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD 605. The following Tang dynasty (618–907) adopted the same measures for drafting officials, and decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations. The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian. The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. In theory, the Chinese civil service system provided one of the main avenues for social mobility in Chinese society, although in practice, due to the time-consuming nature of the study, the examination was generally only taken by sons of the landed gentry. The examination tested the candidate's memorization of the Nine Classics of Confucianism and his ability to compose poetry using fixed and traditional forms and calligraphy. It was ideally suited to literary candidates. Tang at 14 passed the imperial examination at the county level; and at 21, he did so at the provincial level; but not until he was 34 did he pass at the national level. However, he had already become a well-known poet at age 12, and among other things he went on to such distinction as a profound literati and dramatist that it would not be far-fetched to regard him as China's answer to William Shakespeare: Wang Rongpei and Zhang Ling (eds), The Complete Works of Tang Xianzu (2018). In the late 19th century, however, the system increasingly engendered internal dissatisfaction, and was criticized as not reflecting candidates' ability to govern well, and for giving undue weight to style over content and originality of thought. Indeed, long before its abandonment, the notion of the imperial system as a route to social mobility was somewhat mythical. In Tang's magnum opus, The Peony Pavilion, sc 13, Leaving Home, the male lead, Liu Mengmei, laments: "After twenty years of studies, I still have no hope of getting into office", and on this point Tang may be speaking through Liu as his alter ego. The system was finally abolished by the Qing government in 1905 as part of the New Policies reform package. In the 18th century, in response to economic changes and the growth of the British Empire, the bureaucracy of institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board greatly expanded. Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were falling short. "The origins of the British civil service are better known. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar. The first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in 1806." In that year, the Honourable East India Company established a college, the East India Company College, near London to train and examine administrators of the company's territories in India. "The proposal for establishing this college came, significantly, from members of the East India Company's trading post in Canton, China." Examinations for the Indian "civil service"—a term coined by the Company—were introduced in 1829.

What are the Characteristics of the Civil Service/Civil Servant?

  • Anonymity
  • Civil servants may neither disclose government official secretarial nor speak to the press on government matters, except they are authorised by the minister supervising the ministry. They cannot be held responsible for their official actions. The minister and director-general are politically accountable for the success or failure of their ministry.
  • Bureaucracy
  • The civil service is characterised by very strict adherence to established rules and regulations; this sometimes causes delays in the implementation of government policies and programmes.
  • Neutrality
  • Civil servants are required to be politically neutral so that they can serve faithfully, any government in power, no matter the controlling party. The Law requires them to resign their appointment where they are interested in partisan politics.
  • Impartiality
  • This implies that civil servants should discharge their official duties fairly to all the people they are serving, without religious, class, gender, ethnic or any other sectional biases.
  • Merit System
  • Recruitment and promotion in the civil service is often based on merit. Only qualified and competent candidates are recruited by the civil service commission. Promotion is also carried out in accordance with the established rules and regulations.
  • Expertise
  • The civil service consists of highly qualified and professionally experienced experts in various fields. The formulation and implementation of government policies and programmes depend largely on these specialists, while political office holders may not themselves be specialists in the areas they supervise.
  • Permanency
The civil service is a permanent government establishment and employees enjoy security of tenure. The civil service remains intact while government changes periodically.

What are the Functions of Civil Service/Civil Servant?

  • Formulation of Policies
  • Drafting of Bills
  • Advice to the ministers/commissioners
  • Implementation of government policies
  • Preparation of annual estimates and budgets
  • Keeping government records and property
  • Collection of revenue
  • Law-making
  • Quasi-judicial functions
  • Public Enlightenment

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What Are The Top 10 Functions Of A Civil Servant/Civil Service In Nigeria?

Investor Monday, May 2, 2022 Basis

 

Introduction

This article will give information on who a civil servant is, what is meant by the term "civil service" brief history on how civil service/civil servant came into existence and lots more.

What is Civil Service?

The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

Who is a Civil Servant?

A civil servant, also known as a public servant, is a person employed in the public sector by a government department or agency for public sector undertakings. Civil servants work for central and state governments, and answer to the government, not a political party.

Brief History of Civil Service/Civil Servant

The origin of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China. The Imperial exam based on merit was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree. Originally appointments to the bureaucracy were based on the patronage of aristocrats; During Han dynasty, Emperor Wu of Han established the xiaolian system of recommendation by superiors for appointments to office. In the areas of administration, especially the military, appointments were based solely on merit. This was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics. After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy regressed into a semi-merit system known as the nine-rank system. This system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty (581–618), which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation. The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD 605. The following Tang dynasty (618–907) adopted the same measures for drafting officials, and decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations. The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian. The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. In theory, the Chinese civil service system provided one of the main avenues for social mobility in Chinese society, although in practice, due to the time-consuming nature of the study, the examination was generally only taken by sons of the landed gentry. The examination tested the candidate's memorization of the Nine Classics of Confucianism and his ability to compose poetry using fixed and traditional forms and calligraphy. It was ideally suited to literary candidates. Tang at 14 passed the imperial examination at the county level; and at 21, he did so at the provincial level; but not until he was 34 did he pass at the national level. However, he had already become a well-known poet at age 12, and among other things he went on to such distinction as a profound literati and dramatist that it would not be far-fetched to regard him as China's answer to William Shakespeare: Wang Rongpei and Zhang Ling (eds), The Complete Works of Tang Xianzu (2018). In the late 19th century, however, the system increasingly engendered internal dissatisfaction, and was criticized as not reflecting candidates' ability to govern well, and for giving undue weight to style over content and originality of thought. Indeed, long before its abandonment, the notion of the imperial system as a route to social mobility was somewhat mythical. In Tang's magnum opus, The Peony Pavilion, sc 13, Leaving Home, the male lead, Liu Mengmei, laments: "After twenty years of studies, I still have no hope of getting into office", and on this point Tang may be speaking through Liu as his alter ego. The system was finally abolished by the Qing government in 1905 as part of the New Policies reform package. In the 18th century, in response to economic changes and the growth of the British Empire, the bureaucracy of institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board greatly expanded. Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were falling short. "The origins of the British civil service are better known. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar. The first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in 1806." In that year, the Honourable East India Company established a college, the East India Company College, near London to train and examine administrators of the company's territories in India. "The proposal for establishing this college came, significantly, from members of the East India Company's trading post in Canton, China." Examinations for the Indian "civil service"—a term coined by the Company—were introduced in 1829.

What are the Characteristics of the Civil Service/Civil Servant?

  • Anonymity
  • Civil servants may neither disclose government official secretarial nor speak to the press on government matters, except they are authorised by the minister supervising the ministry. They cannot be held responsible for their official actions. The minister and director-general are politically accountable for the success or failure of their ministry.
  • Bureaucracy
  • The civil service is characterised by very strict adherence to established rules and regulations; this sometimes causes delays in the implementation of government policies and programmes.
  • Neutrality
  • Civil servants are required to be politically neutral so that they can serve faithfully, any government in power, no matter the controlling party. The Law requires them to resign their appointment where they are interested in partisan politics.
  • Impartiality
  • This implies that civil servants should discharge their official duties fairly to all the people they are serving, without religious, class, gender, ethnic or any other sectional biases.
  • Merit System
  • Recruitment and promotion in the civil service is often based on merit. Only qualified and competent candidates are recruited by the civil service commission. Promotion is also carried out in accordance with the established rules and regulations.
  • Expertise
  • The civil service consists of highly qualified and professionally experienced experts in various fields. The formulation and implementation of government policies and programmes depend largely on these specialists, while political office holders may not themselves be specialists in the areas they supervise.
  • Permanency
The civil service is a permanent government establishment and employees enjoy security of tenure. The civil service remains intact while government changes periodically.

What are the Functions of Civil Service/Civil Servant?

  • Formulation of Policies
  • Drafting of Bills
  • Advice to the ministers/commissioners
  • Implementation of government policies
  • Preparation of annual estimates and budgets
  • Keeping government records and property
  • Collection of revenue
  • Law-making
  • Quasi-judicial functions
  • Public Enlightenment

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