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What Are The List Of Top 11 Petroleum Products And Their Uses In Nigeria?

JEROME MICHAEL EBRUPHIYO Tuesday, December 7, 2021 Basis

 

Introduction

This article will provide information on "what are the list of the top 11 petroleum products and their uses in Nigeria?" and also provide also to questions regarding petroleum products in Nigeria.

Petroleum Products In Nigeria

Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of well-defined usually pure organic compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures.[citation needed] The majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels. According to the composition of the crude oil and depending on the demands of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i.e. various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a few percent sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization.

List of the Top 11 Petroleum Products and Their Uses in Nigeria

  • Gasoline
  • This is also referred to as petrol. It is a transparent liquid that is obtained from fractional distillation of crude oil. Gasoline comprises of organic compounds that is mainly used in internal combustion engines. It is obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil between 40 ¬≠oC (104 OF) and 205 oC (401 OF), of its boiling range. Gasoline is useable in vehicles, compressors, electrical generators etc. gasoline must be able to meet these three primary requirements: to provide combustion pattern, start easily during cold seasons and meet prevailing environmental requirements.
  • Kerosene
  • Kerosene is also known as paraffin. It is a combustible liquid that contains hydrocarbons. Kerosene lamps is extremely popular though its use as diminished it is greatly and extensively use across the globe for heating, cooking, lighting fuels and toys and a primary fuel for modern jet engines. When used as a domestic fuel, it must produce flame devoid of smoke and odor. The boiling range for kerosene is between 150 oC to 275 oC to avoid fire hazard in storage and handling. Application of kerosene includes pesticide, solvent, lubricant, x-ray crystallography etc. Jet fuels should remain clean and fluid free from wax particles at low temperatures that is experienced in high altitude flight. The boiling point for jet fuel is -50 oC (-58 of). The fuel must be free from any suspended water particles that may probably cause blockage of fuel system with ice particles.
  • Lubricating Oils
  • It is used to reduce friction between surfaces and is found to have thermal and hydraulic stability as well as low freezing point. Lubricants contain 90 percent of base oil and 10 percent of additives. Its boiling range is between 300 oC (572 oF ) to 370 oC(700 of). It is used for motor oils, prevent corrosion, rusting, transfer heat and transfer power. Other additives that improve the performance of lubricating oils are detergents and antioxidants which maintain engine cleanliness and keep carbon particles suspended in the circulating oil.
  • Paraffin Wax
  • Paraffin wax is solid and waxy in nature that is also used as a lubricant. It is mostly kept at solid temperature room. Paraffin is used in making waxing material such as sealand, crayons, waxing surfboards, floors, candle making and cosmetics such as Vaseline etc. its boiling point is greater than 370 oC.
  • Diesel
  • Diesel is ultra-low sulfur that contains reduced amount of sulfur. It is a derivative of petroleum that is obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil with a boiling range of 250 0C (392 oF) and 350 oC (662 oF) at an atmospheric pressure. Diesel is primarily used for powering automobile, truck, bus and railway engines. It is also used in gas turbines and external combustion engine.
  • Asphalt
  • Asphalt is also known as bitumen. It is black and thicker than than petroleum which obtained both naturally and as refined products. It is classified as pitch that its viscosity is the same as cold molasses. It is primarily used to lay roads and is obtained by fractional distillation if crude oil at 525 oC (977 OF). Other uses of asphalt are that it is used for waterproofing products that is meant to seal roofs and so on.
  • Coal Tar
  • Tar can be manufactured from petroleum, wood, coal and peat. It is obtained by a combination of several organic compounds that is called destruction distillation. Its end products comprises of various hydrocarbon and free carbon. The boiling point for tar is greater than 600 oC. Tar is used as disinfectant, hulls of ships and to seal roofs. Wood tar is also used as spice, cosmetics, anti-dandruff, flavor, and shampoo.
  • Petrochemicals
  • Petrochemicals are chemical products that are derived from petroleum. They are classified as olefins and aromatics. Petrochemicals are produced by fractional distillation of natural gas and crude oil. It is used in fertilizers, polish, wax, food additives, synthetic shoes, plastic bottles, etc. its boiling point ranges from 30OC to 200OC.
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
  • This is commonly called flammable liquid that is a combination of different hydrocarbons. It is produced by refining crude oil and its common forms are propane and butane. They are used in heating appliances, it is used as a refrigerant, for cooking purposes and in vehicles etc. the boiling range for liquefied petroleum gas is less than 25 0C.
  • Fuel Oils
Fuel oil is the heaviest fuel that can be derived from refining crude oil. It is obtained from the distillation of petroleum. Fuel oils have many applications which include: heating homes, it is use for trucks, ships and automobiles, it is use in offices, as a backup in electrical generators and power plants etc. it is produced by fractional distillation of crude oil between 370 oC (700 0F) and 600 oC (1112 0F) boiling range.

What are the 10 uses of petroleum?

  • Transportation
  • Industrial power
  • Heating and lighting
  • Lubricants
  • Petro-chemical industry
  • Use of by-products

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