What are the Impacts of Electricity Tariff Increase on Nigerian Economy?

Nuelson Penuel Wednesday, June 7, 2023 Basis


positive and negative impacts of electricity tariff increase on Nigeria economy


An increase in electricity tariff can have significant impacts on the Nigerian economy, leading to higher operating costs for businesses, potential job losses, and decreased discretionary spending for households. However, it may also encourage efficient energy use, promote renewable energy adoption, and generate revenue for infrastructure and innovation. Policymakers must carefully weigh these factors when deciding on an electricity tariff increase to ensure that it benefits the Nigerian economy and its people.

What is Electricity Tariff?

Electricity tariff refers to the price charged for the consumption of electricity by users. It is the amount of money that customers pay for the electricity they use, which is based on the quantity used and the rate at which it is charged by the electricity providers. The tariff is usually set by the regulatory agency overseeing the energy sector in a particular country. Electricity tariffs in Nigeria have been a subject of debate and controversy for a long time. The Federal Government, through the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC), has increased the tariff for electricity consumption on several occasions in recent years. The increase in electricity tariff is aimed at bridging the gap between the cost of generating electricity and the amount paid by consumers. Many Nigerians see the increase in electricity tariff as a major challenge, as it often results in an increase in the cost of living. This is because many households and businesses rely heavily on electricity for their everyday activities, such as lighting, cooking, and running electrical appliances.

Types of Electricity Tariff

There are several types of electricity tariffs, including: 1. Flat rate tariff - This is a fixed rate charged for electricity use, regardless of the time of day or season. 2. Time-of-use (TOU) tariff - This type of tariff varies depending on the time of the day and the season. There are peak and off-peak rates, with peak rates being higher during the day when there is high demand for electricity and off-peak rates being lower during periods of low demand. 3. Demand tariff - This tariff is based on the maximum amount of electricity used during peak periods. Customers are charged a higher rate if they exceed this maximum. 4. Tiered tariff - This tariff is based on a tiered pricing system where customers are charged different rates for the amount of electricity they use. The more electricity a customer uses, the higher the rate they pay. 5. Prepaid tariff - This tariff allows customers to pay for electricity in advance, usually by purchasing a prepaid card or app. Customers can monitor their usage and recharge their accounts as needed. 6. Renewable Energy tariff - This tariff incentivizes the use of renewable energy sources by providing discounted rates for customers who generate their electricity using solar panels or wind turbines.

Factors Affecting Electricity Tariff in Nigeria

There are several factors affecting electricity tariff in Nigeria, some of them include: 1. Cost of Generation: The cost of generating electricity is one of the major factors that affect the electricity tariff in Nigeria. This includes the cost of fuel, maintenance of power plants, and costs associated with power transmission, as well as the cost of upgrades and capital investments. 2. Inflation: The rate of inflation in Nigeria is another factor that influences electricity tariff. As the cost of living increases due to inflation, the cost of electricity generation and distribution also increases. This leads to a rise in electricity tariffs. 3. Foreign Exchange Rates: The rate of foreign exchange is another critical factor that affects the electricity tariff in Nigeria. Nigeria is heavily dependent on imports for electricity generation equipment and fuel, which are typically paid for in foreign currency. Any fluctuations in the exchange rate can lead to a rise or fall in the cost of electricity. 4. Government Policies: The Nigerian government sets electricity tariffs using regulatory policies aimed at improving the power sector. Changes in governmental policy regarding electricity tariffs, subsidies, and tax rebates can significantly influence the cost of electricity. 5. Energy Theft: Illegal tapping of electricity lines, vandalism, and energy theft impact the distribution of electricity and may lead to a raise in tariffs to compensate for revenue losses. The value of energy lost to theft is spread across paying customers in the form of higher tariffs. 6. Population Density: The population and number of users in an area determine the frequency of maintenance and upgrades needed for the power grid within the area. Therefore, areas with a higher population density may have higher electricity tariffs due to higher maintenance costs.

Negative Impacts of Electricity Tariff Increase on Nigerian Economy

Here are ten potential impacts of electricity tariff increase on the Nigerian economy: 1. Stifling of economic growth: The increase in electricity tariffs can lead to a rise in production costs, which can reduce investors' and businesses' profits. This, in turn, can reduce the size and growth rate of the economy. 2. Increased cost of living: The increase in electricity tariffs can lead to an increase in the cost of living, as many businesses will pass the increased electricity costs onto consumers. Higher cost of living could lead to increased poverty and reduced economic growth. 3. Reduced competitiveness: High energy costs could make Nigerian businesses less competitive compared to businesses in other countries with lower energy costs, leading to a decline in exports. 4. Inflationary pressure: The increase in electricity tariffs could contribute to price increases on goods and services, further inflating an already struggling economy. 5. Job losses: When companies face higher production costs due to increased electricity tariffs, they might lay off workers or reduce their working hours to remain profitable. Such job losses could have a negative impact on the economy. 6. Investment decline: An increase in electricity tariffs may cause investors to seek alternative investment locations with cheaper electricity tariffs. This could reduce foreign direct investment and slow economic growth. 7. Increase in social unrest: The increase in electricity tariffs could cause social unrest, protests and strikes as people protest against the high cost of living. 8. Reduced consumer spending: Households in Nigeria may have to redirect their budget to pay for higher electricity tariffs. This could reduce consumer spending, resulting in a decline in sales and profits for businesses. 9. Negative impact on SMEs: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have little leeway in their budget may find it challenging to survive the increase in electricity tariffs, potentially leading to reduced profitability and default in loan repayment. 10. Reduced economic competitiveness: An increase in electricity tariffs could reduce the competitiveness of Nigeria's economy and negatively affect business confidence, which could lead to a decrease in economic growth.

Positive Impacts of Electricity Tariff Increase on Nigerian Economy

However, it is important to note that electricity tariff increase can have some positive impacts on the economy. Here are ten potential positive impacts: 1. Encourages conservation of electricity: An increase in electricity tariff can encourage consumers to conserve energy, leading to reduced demand for electricity and ultimately, lower energy costs. 2. Increases investments in the power sector: Higher electricity tariffs may help to attract more investment in the power sector, leading to increased supply and more affordable prices in the long run. 3. Encourages the use of renewable sources of energy: A higher electricity tariff can encourage the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, as consumers can save money by generating their own energy. 4. Promotes energy efficiency: A higher electricity tariff can lead to better energy efficiency as consumers seek to reduce their electricity bills. 5. Creates employment opportunities: More investment in the power sector can create more job opportunities, leading to economic growth and development. 6. Improves power supply: An increase in electricity tariff can help electricity providers improve their infrastructure and supply quality, leading to a more stable supply of electricity to consumers. 7. Reduces dependency on generators: Nigerians rely heavily on generators due to poor electricity supply. An increase in electricity tariff can help reduce the dependency on generators and promote cleaner and more efficient energy consumption. 8. Increases government revenue: The increase in electricity tariff can lead to more revenue for the government, which can then be used to invest in the power sector and other sectors. 9. Promotes industrialization: A stable and affordable supply of electricity can encourage industrialization, leading to increased economic growth and development. 10. Encourages local production: The increase in electricity tariff can encourage local production of energy, which can lead to job creation and reduced importation of energy sources.


An increase in electricity tariff can have various impacts on the economy and the general public. Firstly, an increase in electricity tariff can result in higher operating costs for industrial and commercial businesses, leading to a decrease in profitability and potential job losses. Secondly, households may also find it challenging to meet their basic energy needs, which may result in a decrease in their discretionary spending. Moreover, higher electricity tariffs may act as an inflationary pressure, increasing the cost of goods and services across all sectors. On the other hand, there are also some potential benefits to an increase in electricity tariffs. Firstly, higher tariffs may encourage consumers to use energy more efficiently by reducing wastage, leading to lower energy consumption and carbon emissions. Secondly, higher tariffs may prompt a shift towards the adoption of renewable energy sources, which, in the long run, may lead to a reduction in overall carbon emissions. Finally, higher tariffs may generate additional revenue that may be invested in infrastructure and innovation, leading to better and more reliable electricity supply in the future. In conclusion, while an increase in electricity tariff may result in some adverse impacts on the economy and the general public, there are also some potential benefits that cannot be ignored. Therefore, policymakers must carefully weigh the costs and benefits of an electricity tariff increase before deciding, taking into account the specific socio-economic context in which they operate.

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