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By JEROME MICHAEL EBRUPHIYO/Science and Nature/Monday, September 20, 2021

What Are The Health Benefits Of Apple Fruit (Malus domestica)?

                              
                            
This post will provide information on "What are the health benefits of apple fruit (Malus domestica)?" as well as provide answers to questions like: Where did the apple originate from? Who founded Apple fruit? When was the apple fruit invented? When did humans begin eating apples? What are the benefits of eating an apple everyday? What does an apple do for your body? Why apple is the best fruit? Why are apples bad for you? What happens when you eat an apple a day? Why is apple bad for you? Is eating an apple a day bad for you? What does apple do to the body?

History of Apple Fruit (Malus domestica)

The apple is thought to have been domesticated 4000–10000 years ago in the Tian Shan mountains, and then to have travelled along the Silk Road to Europe, with hybridization and introgression of wild crabapples from Siberia (M. baccata), the Caucasus (M. orientalis), and Europe (M. sylvestris). Only the M. sieversii trees growing on the western side of the Tian Shan mountains contributed genetically to the domesticated apple, not the isolated population on the eastern side. Chinese soft apples, such as M. asiatica and M. prunifolia, have been cultivated as dessert apples for more than 2000 years in China. These are thought to be hybrids between M. baccata and M. sieversii in Kazakhstan. Among the traits selected for by human growers are size, fruit acidity, color, firmness, and soluble sugar. Unusually for domesticated fruits, the wild M. sieversii origin is only slightly smaller than the modern domesticated apple. At the Sammardenchia-Cueis site near Udine in Northeastern Italy, seeds from some form of apples have been found in material carbon dated to around 4000 BCE. Genetic analysis has not yet been successfully used to determine whether such ancient apples were wild Malus sylvestris or Malus domesticus containing Malus sieversii ancestry. It is generally also hard to distinguish in the archeological record between foraged wild apples and apple plantations. Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage. Controlled atmosphere facilities are used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilities use high humidity, low oxygen, and controlled carbon dioxide levels to maintain fruit freshness. They were first used in the United States in the 1960s

Description of Apple Fruit (Malus domestica)

The apple is a deciduous tree, generally standing 2 to 4.5 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in cultivation and up to 9 m (30 ft) in the wild. When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots. The 3 to 4 cm (1 to 1+1/2 in) flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; it opens first and can develop a larger fruit. The fruit matures in late summer or autumn, and cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple that is 7 to 8.5 cm (2+3/4 to 3+1/4 in) in diameter, due to market preference. Some consumers, especially those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 5.5 cm (2+1/4 in) are generally used for making juice and have little fresh market value. The skin of ripe apples is generally red, yellow, green, pink, or russetted, though many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found. The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax. The exocarp (flesh) is generally pale yellowish-white, though pink or yellow exocarps also occur.

Health Benefits of Apple Fruit (Malus domestica)

  • Apples are a good source of fiber and vitamin C as well as polyphenols which may have numerous health benefits
  • Apples may aid weight loss in several ways
  • They are high in soluble fiber, which helps lower cholesterol thereby keeping the heart function in check
  • Eating apples is linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes due to their polyphenol antioxidant content
  • The type of fiber in apples feeds good bacteria and may be the reason they protect against obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes
  • Apples have several naturally occurring compounds that may help fight cancer
  • Apples contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds that may help regulate immune responses and protect against asthma
  • The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in apples may promote bone health
  • Apples contain compounds that may help protect your stomach lining from injury due to NSAID painkillers
  • Apples may help protect your brain

Side Effects of Apple Fruit (Malus domestica)

  • Having too many apples can lead to a blood sugar spike as it is rich in carbohydrates
  • Excess of apple can lead to bloating and constipation
  • Diphenylamine is a pesticide commonly found in apples, which means eating too many apples can lead to intake of too many chemicals which are dangerous to your immune system
  • Eating too many apples can restrict your body from burning fat when it needs to lose weight
  • Apples are acidic and thus too much of it can damage your teeth, even more than sodas
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