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By JEROME MICHAEL EBRUPHIYO/Science and Nature/Monday, July 12, 2021

The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations

                              
                            
While some resources in Nigeria are properly used to boost its economy, others are either underused or yet to be exploited. There are numerous rich natural resources in Nigeria, each with its own values. Although Nigeria mainly focuses on Crude oil as its major economic source, it still uses some other natural mineral resources to improve its standard of living and the economy. Natural resources are substances that occur naturally without the influence of man and can mostly be used for human consumption and economic growth. They can either be used in their natural form or processed and manufactured into artificial products for consumption. Examples of natural resources include water (seas, ocean, rivers, streams, and lakes), land, air, forests, sunlight, rocks, minerals, animals, fossil fuel among others. Natural resources can be classified into three (3) categories; Source of origin, Stage of development, and Renewability. Industries process most of the natural and mineral resources into finished products for human consumption.The following are the major natural resources in Nigeria and can be found across different regions and states in the country.

1. Crude Oil


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Popularly known as one of the natural resources in Nigeria, Crude oil is a fossil fuel discovered in the country in 1956. The unrefined petroleum mined underground forms as a result of pressurization and decomposition from plants and small animals’ remnants. Nigeria is the world’s fourth richest in crude oil deposit and the first in Africa. Crude oil mineral deposits are found majorly in the Niger-Delta regions comprising of Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers State.

2. Gold


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Deposits of gold are located in the Northern part of Nigeria. Its production started in the year 1913 and climaxed in the 1930s. The gold production, however, declined during and after the Second World War. This natural resource is prominently found in Iperindo in Osun State, Malele, Gurmana, Okolom-Dogondaji, Anka, Bin Yauri, Maru, and Tsohon Birnin Gwari-Kwaga. Other states where small traces of Gold can be found are Abuja, Abia, Bauchi, Cross River, Edo, Kaduna, Kebbi, Kogi, Niger, Oyo, Osun, Sokoto, and Zamfara State.

3. Silver


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa that has deposits of silver. Just like some other mineral resources, silver is sparsely deposited in the country and can be found in the northern part of Nigeria and can be found in Taraba, and Kano, State. Ebonyi state has traces of Silver.

4. Coal


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Another fossil fuel, coal is among the non-renewable natural resources in Nigeria. The country can make use of coal as an alternative source for generating electricity. Manufacturing industries use coal as a liquid fuel for cement and steel production. This naturally occurring substance is a combustible brownish-black or black sedimentary rock which occurs in rock strata in layers. Locations: Enugu, Delta, Benue, Plateau, Kwara, Abia, Kogi, Imo, Ondo, Adamawa, Edo, Bauchi, and Anambra States.

5. Granite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Granite is abundantly deposited in Nigeria and Africa at large. The natural stone is crushed and used in the construction of roads, buildings, and bridges. Granite can be found in every state but are seen in bigger quantities in Ekiti, Cross River State and Abuja (FCT).

6. Iron-ore


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Nigeria has huge iron ore deposits which are usually found in sedimentary rocks. It is believed that Itakpe (Kogi State) has the purest iron ore deposits. Other states where Iron ore deposits are found include Anambra, Abia, Benue, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Plateau, and Kwara States.

7. Barite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Nigeria is hugely blessed with a large number of Barite deposits. Barite or Baryte (BaSO4) mineral resources are made up of Barium sulfate and come in a wide range of crystal forms and colors. Large numbers of quality Barite are found in Cross River State in areas like Yala, Ikom, Obubra, Obanliku, Yakurr, and Biase. Other states are Benue and Plateau.

8. Bitumen


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Bitumen is one of the rich and popular natural resources in Nigeria as it contains oil accounting over 13 billion barrels. First discovered in the 1900s, Bitumen greatly contributes to the Nigerian economy. This hydrocarbon can either be found in deposits (oil sands) or acquired as a residue in the crude oil distillation process and can be found in Edo, Ogun, Ondo, and Lagos State.

9. Gemstones


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Gemstones are one of the most wanted precious and semi-precious stones. Fortunately, these natural resources are in abundance and scattered across several states in Nigeria. Some are found in larger quantities, while others in little quantities. Amethyst, aquamarine, diamond, emerald, garnet, ruby, sapphire, topaz, Kyanite, tourmaline, zircon, turquoise, labradorite, benitoite, and ammolite are some of the many available gemstones in Nigeria. Paraiba tourmalines are richly found in Oyo state, other states include Bauchi, Benue, Ogun, Ondo, Kaduna, Kano, Plateau, and Nasarawa States while Tourmaline deposits are located in Kaduna, Osun, and Nasarawa States.

10. Clay


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Clay is one of the most popular natural resources in Nigeria and is the oldest building material on the planet. Today, it is used to manufacture pottery, ceramics, wall and floor tiles, fire bricks, among others. Clay is deposited in bigger quantities in Nigeria states such as Abuja (FCT) Anambra, Akwa Ibom, State, Benue, Bauchi, Borno, Cross River, Lagos, Edo, Delta, Ogun, Oyo, Ondo, Sokoto, and Nasarawa States.

11. Feldspar


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Feldspar is one of the non-metallic natural mineral resources that are formed in rocks deposits in Ajaokuta (Kogi), Ondo, Ogun, and Abia States.

12. Copper Ore


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Copper ore is also one of the metallic natural resources that are richly deposited in Nigeria. Although Copper ore large scale mining and exportation process are still neglected by the government, locals mine and export these metallic minerals and can be found in Abia, Bauchi, Kano, Gombe, Plateau, Nasarawa, and Zamfara States.

13. Zinc


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
In West Africa, Nigeria is one of the countries that have large quantity of Zinc deposits across several states. After Iron, Aluminum, and Copper, Zinc is the fourth (4th) most widely utilized metallic substance and can be found in Abuja (FCT), Anambra, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Ebonyi, Imo, Niger, Kano, Plateau, Taraba, and Zamfara States.

14. Dolomite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Dolomite deposits are one of the Nigeria mineral resources, similar to Limestone in terms of exposure to pressure and heat. It is formed from the sedimentary rock and can be found in Abuja (FCT), Edo (Akoko and Ikpeshi), Kwara, Kogi, Oyo, Nasarawa, and Yobe.

15. Lead Ore


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Lead ore deposits are metallic natural resources abundant in Nigeria and can be found in Anambra, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Imo, Benue, Ebonyi, Enugu, Abuja (FCT), Niger, Cross River, Plateau, Taraba, and Zamfara.

16. Limestone


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Limestone is a sedimentary rock and non-renewable natural resources that is greatly used by local, as well as international firms in Nigeria and can be found in Abia, Anambra, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Borno, Bauchi, Benue, Enugu, Edo, Ogun, Imo, Ondo, and Sokoto States.

17. Phosphate


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Phosphate mineral deposits are found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Due to the presence of these rocks and phosphate beds in Nigeria, Phosphate is largely deposited in the country and it can be found in Abia, Sokoto, Edo, Imo, Ogun, and Anambra States.

18. Galena


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Galena doesn’t occur on its own as it is mostly found mixed with other minerals resources such as sphalerite, calcite, and fluorite. Galena is a very essential ore widely used in the electrical and electronic industries. Locations: Galena is deposited largely in Ebonyi State (Ishiagu) with a reserve of approximately 15 million tonnes. Other states include Nasarawa, Ogun, Ekiti, Kwara, Kogi, and Taraba.

19. Gypsum


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Gypsum is a soft, white-greyish (pure form) mineral resource that can also come in a variety of colors- reddish-brown, pink, brown, blue, tan, yellow (impure form). It is found in a large bed of sedimentary rocks. The existence of Gypsum was evaluated and reported in 1921 and it can be found in Anambra, Adamawa, Bayelsa Bauchi, Borno, Benue, Delta, Edo, Imo, Gombe, Ondo, Kogi, and Sokoto States.

20. Wolframite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Wolframite is not a popular mineral, compared to the other natural resources in Nigeria. The mineral deposit is the main ore of Tungsten, as a result, it is highly valued. It has a high melting temperature and dense. Wolframite is located in the northern regions of Nigeria such as Bauchi, Kaduna, Kano, Niger, and Plateau states.

21. Kaolin


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Kaolin is one of the natural resources in Nigeria that is found in large commercial amount. Also known as China clay, Kaolin is whitish and has a soft powdery texture. Kaolinite is a major component of Kaolin and can be found in Abia, Adamawa, Delta, Borno, Ekiti, Katsina, Kaduna, Kogi, Oyo, Ondo, Ogun, and Plateau States.

22. Salt


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Salt is a very common natural deposit in Nigeria. It comes in different types such as table salt (the commonest), sea salt, red salt, black salt, smoked salt, grey salt Persian blue salt, Himalayan pink salt, and many more. Salt is largely deposited in Ebonyi State, thus its slogan– The Salt of the Nation. Others locations include Akwa Ibom, Abia, Benue, Anambra Cross River, Katsina, Imo, and Sokoto State.

23. Magnesium


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Magnesium is not largely deposited in Nigeria, unlike some other African nations. It exists in nature alongside other mineral resources. Magnesium is the world’s eighth most abundant natural element and is found in Adamawa and Kebbi States.

24. Quartzite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Quartzite is hard metamorphic rock with an appearance that is non-layered. Its color in the pure form is grey or white, but it can also come in other colors which depend on the kind of existing impurities and can be found in Ekiti, Kwara, Kogi, Oyo, and Taraba States.

25. Tin Ore


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Also known as Cassiterite, Tin Ore deposits were first discovered in Nigeria by Sir William Wallace in 1884 and Tin Ore mineral deposits are produced in Abuja, Bauchi, and Plateau States.

26. Fluorite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Unlike many other Natural resources that are widely abundant in Nigeria, Fluorite is among the ones that are only deposited in traces. It is crystal colorless in its pure form. However, it can be seen in several colors due to the presence of impurities and is majorly present in Taraba State.

27. Manganese


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Nigeria is blessed with a large number of natural mineral resources, even though many are untapped and less used. Various local and global companies venture into the mining and exportation of Manganese to other countries and can be found in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Benue, Katsina, Cross River, Kebbi, Kaduna, Nasarawa, and Plateau.

28. Tar sands


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Tar sands are also known as oil sands. They are black heavy sticky oil that develops from the mixture of sand, clay, bitumen, and water. Tar sands are highly valuable in the country due to the oil content present in the Bitumen and can be found Predominantly deposited in the Mid-Western part of Nigeria, Eastern Dahomey Basin (Benin) and other areas of Edo State. Other states include Ondo and Abia States.

29. Columbite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Columbite is found together with Tantalite in pegmatites and granite deposits. This mineral deposit is an ore of tantalum and niobium used in the formations of alloys. It is useful in the gas turbine, aerospace, and nuclear engineering and it can be found in Abuja, Kano, Kwara, Kogi, Plateau, and Nasarawa States.

30. Diatomite


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Diatoms skeletons and single-celled organisms (located in salt or fresh water) made of silica skeleton are the major components of Diatomite and it can be found in Abuja, Kogi, Oyo, and Nasarawa States.

31. Titanium


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
The deposits of Titanium are only available in a small quantity, unlike other mineral and natural resources in Nigeria. Titanium is strong but lighter than steel with a melting temperature that is very high and it can be found majorly in Ekiti State.

32. Marble


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Marble is a metamorphic rock and has a non-layered appearance, just like Quartzite. Recrystallized carbonate minerals such as calcite (CaCO3)/ dolomite, iron oxides, pyrite, graphite, clay minerals, micas, and quartz generally make up this mineral deposit. Both local and international construction industries use Marble and it can be found in Marble is majorly located in Abuja (FCT), Benue, Oyo, Katsina, Kogi, Kwara, River, and Plateau States.

33. Uranium


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Uranium deposits are natural resources in Nigeria. The country only uses the deposits in lesser quantity than expected. Uranium production can help to boost the economy of Nigeria and it can be found in Akwa Ibom, Adamawa, Bayelsa, Bauchi, Cross River, Kano, Plateau, and Taraba States.

34. Talc


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Talc is a metamorphic mineral mostly found locked deep within metamorphic rocks. The soft mineral deposit has a greasy feel and comes in white, grey or pale green colors. Magnesium, oxygen, and silicon elements are the major components of Talc and it can be found in Ekiti, Kaduna, Kogi, Osun, Oyo, Niger, Nasarawa, and Yobe States.

35. Silica


The List of the 35 Notable Natural Resources in Nigeria and their Locations
Silica also called Silicon dioxide or silica sand is one of the natural resources in Nigeria. It occurs in silicon and oxygen compound (SiO2) and it can be found in Delta, Jigawa, Kano, Lagos, and Ondo States.
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