Prospect, Problems and Solutions of Privatization in Nigeria

Nuelson Penuel Saturday, October 14, 2023 Basis



Privatization remains a controversial issue in Nigeria, despite various governments' efforts to implement it. Although privatization was introduced in the country in the late 1980s, its implementation has been slow and fraught with challenges. This article examines the problem, prospects and solutions of privatization in Nigeria.

What is Privatization?

Privatization is the transfer of government-owned assets to private investors, with the aim of improving their management, efficiency and profitability. The privatization program was introduced in Nigeria in the late 1980s, following the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) that was initiated by the government. However, privatization in Nigeria has not been without its fair share of challenges.

Problems of Privatization in Nigeria

a) Corruption: One of the significant problems of privatization in Nigeria is corruption. Corruption often plays a significant role in the sale of public assets to private investors. In many cases, assets are sold to preferred bidders at lower-than-market prices, such that the government loses significant revenue in the process. b) Resistance to Change: Stakeholders in the public sector often resist the change that comes with privatization, fearing that their jobs and livelihoods may be at risk. Employees may be reluctant to embrace the new management or reporting relationships, which can lead to friction within the organization. c) Lack of Transparency: Another issue that plagues privatization in Nigeria is the lack of transparency and adequate disclosure of information. Potential bidders may not have sufficient information about the assets put up for sale and the expected obligations and risks they will face. d) Inadequate Regulation: There is a lack of regulation in the privatization process in Nigeria. The government has not done enough to ensure that private investors adhere to laid-down guidelines and regulations. This lack of oversight can lead to underperformance, exploitation of workers, and ultimately failure of the enterprise.

Prospects of Privatization in Nigeria

Despite the challenges facing privatization in Nigeria, there exist prospects and advantages that can be gained from implementing the policy. a) Increased Efficiency and Improved Management of Public Assets: Privatization can lead to increased efficiency and improved management of public assets. Private investors usually have better management and financial expertise than the government, which can lead to better outcomes for the enterprise. b) Increased Revenue Generation: Privatization can lead to increased revenue generation for the government. Private investors can inject the required capital and expertise to make the asset more profitable, which can lead to increased revenue for the government. c) Reduction of Government Expenditure: With privatization, the government can reduce its expenditure on the management of public assets, as well as the provision of certain services such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure development. d) Creation of Employment Opportunities: Privatization can lead to the creation of employment opportunities as private investors usually have a larger appetite for hiring skilled labor to ensure the success of the enterprise.

Solutions to Privatization Problems in Nigeria

To address the problems encountered in the privatization process in Nigeria, the following solutions can be implemented: 1. Enhance Transparency and Accountability: The government should ensure that the privatization process is transparent and accountable. This can be achieved by publishing comprehensive information about the assets being privatized, including their valuation and potential risks. Open bidding processes and strict adherence to regulations and guidelines should be enforced to reduce the chances of corruption and favoritism. 2. Strengthen Legal and Regulatory Framework: The government should enact and enforce strong legal and regulatory frameworks to guide the privatization process. This includes laws and regulations that outline the rights and obligations of both the government and private investors, as well as mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing compliance. An independent regulatory body should be established to oversee and monitor the privatization process, ensuring fair competition and adherence to rules. 3. Conduct Comprehensive Due Diligence: Prior to privatization, there should be a thorough and independent due diligence process to assess the financial, operational, and legal aspects of the assets being privatized. This will help identify potential risks and liabilities, and ensure that potential investors have access to accurate and reliable information. This step will enhance the credibility and attractiveness of the investment opportunity, while mitigating the chances of legal disputes and conflicts. 4. Capacity Building and Employee Protection: Adequate provisions should be made for capacity building programs to train employees in new skills and management techniques, creating a smooth transition from public to private ownership. This will help reduce resistance to change and empower employees to become valuable assets to the new private entities. Additionally, measures should be put in place to protect the rights and welfare of employees affected by the privatization process, ensuring fair treatment, job security, and adequate compensation. 5. Engage Stakeholders: Active engagement of relevant stakeholders, including employees, labor unions, communities, and civil society organizations, is crucial in the privatization process. Regular consultations, open dialogues, and feedback mechanisms should be established to address concerns, gather input, and ensure that the interests of all parties are considered and protected. This will foster transparency, build trust, and create a sense of ownership among stakeholders. 6. Monitor and Evaluate Privatized Enterprises: The government should establish a robust monitoring and evaluation system to gauge the performance and impact of privatized enterprises. Regular assessments should be conducted to ensure compliance with performance targets, financial obligations, and social responsibilities. This will help identify and address any issues promptly, and hold private investors accountable for their commitments.


Privatization in Nigeria has been fraught with challenges, with corruption and lack of transparency being the most significant issues. However, privatization can lead to increased efficiency, revenue generation, and the creation of employment opportunities. It is, therefore, necessary for the government to address the challenges surrounding privatization to ensure its success and maximize the benefits that can be accrued from it. Effective regulation and transparency are paramount to the successful implementation of privatization in Nigeria. If done correctly, privatization can be an essential tool for national development.

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