Overview of Wheat Importation in Nigeria: History of Wheat Importation in Nigeria

Nuelson Penuel Saturday, June 3, 2023 Basis


Wheat Importation in Nigeria

Wheat importation in Nigeria has been on the rise in recent years as the country's demand for wheat-based products continues to grow. Wheat is considered a staple food and is widely used in the production of bread, pastries, noodles, and many other food products. However, Nigeria's domestic production of wheat is low, and the country depends on wheat imports to meet its demand. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, in 2019, Nigeria imported about 4.8 million metric tons of wheat, which was a significant increase from the previous year. The wheat is mainly sourced from countries such as the United States, Canada, Russia, and Australia. The increase in wheat importation has been linked to the growth of fast food restaurants, bakeries, and other food-processing industries in the country. The government has also encouraged the development of the agricultural sector, including the wheat value chain, but the progress has been slow. Despite the potential for local wheat production, inadequate infrastructure, low yields, and poor quality have been a significant challenge for wheat farmers in the country. The wheat importation sector in Nigeria is highly regulated by various government agencies, including the Nigerian Customs Service, the Nigerian Ports Authority, and the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The agencies work together to ensure that imported wheat meets the necessary quality and safety standards.

History of Wheat Importation in Nigeria

Wheat importation in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era when Nigeria was still under British rule. During this period, wheat was primarily imported to meet the dietary needs of the colonialists. After Nigeria gained independence in 1960, wheat became a significant commodity due to the growing demand for bread and other wheat-based food items. In the early 1970s, the Nigerian government initiated the Green Revolution program to increase local food production, including wheat. The program aimed to reduce the country's dependence on imports and achieve self-sufficiency in food production. However, the program was not successful due to various challenges, including poor infrastructure, lack of funding, and inadequate technical expertise. By the late 1970s and early 1980s, the government had relaxed its policies on wheat importation, leading to a surge in wheat imports. The liberalization of the economy in the 1990s further increased wheat importation as the private sector was allowed to import wheat and other food items. In recent years, wheat importation has continued to increase due to the growth of fast food chains and the expansion of wheat-based food production industries. Although the government has made efforts to support local wheat production through policies and incentives, the progress has been slow, leading to continued reliance on imports. In conclusion, wheat importation in Nigeria has a long history dating back to the colonial era. Despite efforts to promote local production, the country's dependence on imports has continued to grow, mainly due to challenges faced by local farmers and limited investments in the sector.

Effects of Wheat Importation on Nigeria Economy

There are several effects of wheat importation in Nigeria, some of which are listed below: 1. Drain on foreign exchange: Nigeria spends a significant amount of its foreign exchange on wheat importation, which has a negative impact on the country's external reserves. 2. Job loss: The importation of wheat into Nigeria undermines the growth of the domestic wheat industry and leads to the loss of jobs in the agricultural sector. 3. Food insecurity: Overreliance on imported wheat poses a threat to food security as external factors such as fluctuations in prices and trade policies of exporting countries can disrupt the supply chain. 4. Trade imbalance: Excessive importation of wheat creates an imbalance between import and export, which can lead to a negative trade balance and a further weakening of the economy. 5. Health implications: Most imported wheat products are processed and contain additives, which can have adverse health effects on consumers. 6. Reduces income for Nigerian farmers: Importation of foreign wheat means that Nigerian farmers who grow the crop receive inadequate patronage and are left to suffer economic loss.


In conclusion, wheat importation in Nigeria remains a critical aspect of the country's food security, as it is used in various food products and industries. However, the government needs to invest more in the wheat value chain and encourage local production to reduce the country's dependence on imports.

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