Overview of Muhammadu Buhari Biography and Political Career

Nuelson Penuel Thursday, November 2, 2023 Basis


Muhammed Buhari Biography


President Muhammadu Buhari, the 15th President of Nigeria, has played a significant role in shaping the nation's future. This blog post aims to provide a thorough description of his character, achievements, and policies, highlighting both the positive and controversial aspects of his leadership. By examining his background, reform agenda, and impact on key sectors, we can gain a deeper understanding of President Buhari's presidency.

Background and Character:

Born on December 17, 1942, in Daura, a village in Katsina State, Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari grew up in a modest household, instilling in him a sense of frugality and discipline. Buhari's military background further shaped his leadership style, emphasizing discipline, loyalty, and a no-nonsense approach to governance. After graduating from the Nigerian Military Training College in 1962, he pursued a distinguished military career, rising through the ranks to become Major General.

Head of State Muhammadu Buhari (1983-1985)

Muhammadu Buhari served as the Head of State of Nigeria from December 31, 1983, to August 27, 1985. He came into power through a military coup, overthrowing the civilian government of President Shehu Shagari. Buhari's tenure as the Head of State during this period was marked by various policies and initiatives aimed at addressing corruption, improving governance, and restoring discipline in Nigeria. Upon assuming office, Buhari launched the War Against Indiscipline (WAI) campaign, which aimed to promote discipline, integrity, and accountability among Nigerians. The campaign introduced measures such as the enforcement of promptness, anti-corruption drives, and adherence to rules and regulations. Although WAI received mixed reviews, it is seen by some as a significant effort to combat indiscipline and corruption in the country. Buhari's administration also focused on economic restructuring and anti-corruption efforts. The War Against Indiscipline was complemented by another initiative called the War Against Corruption (WAC). This initiative targeted embezzlement, money laundering, and corrupt practices, leading to arrests and trials of high-ranking government officials. Buhari's administration believed that tackling corruption was fundamental to restoring Nigeria's economy and regaining the trust of its citizens. Furthermore, during his tenure, Buhari implemented austerity measures to address Nigeria's economic challenges. He introduced the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), which included currency devaluation, reduction in government expenditures, and deregulation of certain sectors. These measures were intended to stabilize the Nigerian economy and initiate long-term economic reforms. However, they also led to social and economic hardships for many Nigerians. Buhari's presidency faced criticism for human rights abuses, including the jailing of journalists and activists for expressing dissent. His administration imposed stringent media censorship and limited freedom of speech, leading to a climate of fear and repression. These actions were seen by many as a violation of democratic principles and personal freedoms. After being deposed in a military coup led by General Ibrahim Babangida in 1985, Buhari transitioned into civilian life and later pursued a political career, eventually becoming the President of Nigeria in 2015. His second tenure as President has been described in a separate section of this blog post.

Political Journey and Reform Agenda:

President Buhari's political career started in 2003 when he first ran for presidency under the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Although unsuccessful, he remained committed to his vision for a better Nigeria, which resonated with many citizens. In 2015, he ran again under the platform of the All Progressives Congress (APC) and successfully won the election, becoming the first opposition candidate to defeat an incumbent president in Nigeria's history. President Buhari's reform agenda focused on three key pillars: fighting corruption, reviving the economy, and improving security. His commitment to eradicating corruption, a deeply entrenched issue in Nigeria, has been met with mixed reviews. While many applaud his efforts to recover stolen funds and strengthen anti-corruption institutions, some criticize the slow progress, arguing that corruption remains widespread. Nevertheless, he has made significant strides, including the implementation of the Treasury Single Account (TSA) and launching initiatives such as the Whistleblower Policy, which encourages citizens to report corruption.

Economic Policies and Achievements:

Buhari's economic policies aimed at diversifying Nigeria's oil-dependent economy and promoting sustainable growth. The implementation of the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP) focused on infrastructure development, agriculture, housing, and MSMEs. Additionally, his administration pursued policies to improve the ease of doing business, attracting foreign investment and fostering entrepreneurship. However, the nation faced challenges during his tenure, including a recession caused by plummeting oil prices and inconsistent implementation of economic reforms, creating mixed results in the eyes of critics.

Security and Anti-Terrorism Efforts:

President Buhari's commitment to national security and the fight against terrorism has been a focal point of his presidency. His administration made considerable efforts to disrupt Boko Haram's activities, leading to the liberation of numerous territories previously held by the terrorist group. Moreover, partnerships with neighboring countries were established to enhance regional security and intelligence sharing. Nevertheless, the resurgence of banditry, kidnappings, and other security challenges in some parts of the country remain areas that need further attention.

Some Controversies During Muhammadu Buhari Regime

Muhammadu Buhari's regime, both during his first term as Head of State from 1983 to 1985 and his current presidency starting in 2015, has been marred by controversies that have drawn both criticism and public scrutiny. Here are some notable controversies associated with his regime: 1. Human Rights Abuses: During his first term as Head of State, Buhari's administration was accused of human rights abuses. The regime implemented strict media censorship and limited freedom of speech, leading to the imprisonment of journalists and activists who expressed dissenting opinions. This raised concerns about the suppression of democracy and infringement on basic human rights. 2. Economic Policies and Austerity Measures: Buhari's implementation of austerity measures, particularly the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), was met with mixed reviews. While the intention behind these policies was to stabilize the Nigerian economy and initiate long-term reforms, they resulted in significant economic hardships for many Nigerians. Currency devaluation and budget cuts, combined with reduction of subsidies, led to increased prices of essential goods and services, further burdening the population. 3. Handling of Security Challenges: Critics of Buhari's administration point to the perceived failures in effectively addressing security challenges, particularly the insurgency of Boko Haram. Despite promises to defeat the extremist group, attacks and abductions continued, with the group expanding its influence and conducting daring operations. Furthermore, clashes between farmers and herders escalated during Buhari's presidency, leading to a rise in communal violence and loss of lives. 4. Fulani Herdsmen Crisis: The escalating clashes between predominantly Fulani herdsmen and farmers in various parts of Nigeria have been a source of concern under Buhari's regime. Critics argue that Buhari, who is of Fulani descent, has inadequately responded to the crisis, resulting in the loss of lives and displacement of communities. Many accuse him of not taking decisive action to curb the violence and address the root causes of the conflict. 5. Slow Pace of Economic Reforms: Buhari's administration has faced criticism for the slow pace of economic reforms. Despite promising diversification and reducing Nigeria's dependence on oil, progress in some key sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing has been sluggish. Critics argue that the government has not done enough to attract foreign investment and create jobs, leading to high youth unemployment and economic stagnation. It is important to note that while these controversies have overshadowed Buhari's regime, there have also been positive developments and achievements under his leadership, including anti-corruption efforts and infrastructure development. However, the controversies mentioned above have generated significant debate and raised concerns about the direction of Nigeria under Buhari's leadership.


President Muhammadu Buhari, with his years of military experience and commitment to Nigeria's well-being, has left an indelible mark on the nation's history. His leadership has been highlighted by efforts to combat corruption, stimulate economic growth, and enhance security, although with varying degrees of success. As with any leader, Buhari's presidency has faced both praise and criticism, and his impact will continue to be debated for years to come. Nevertheless, his dedication to the Nigerian people and his vision for a prosperous nation make him an influential figure in this critical moment of Nigeria's history.

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