Nigerian Neighboring Countries and their Population

Nuelson Penuel Saturday, August 12, 2023 Basis



Nigeria is a West African country that shares borders with several neighboring countries. These countries include Benin to the west, Niger to the north, Chad to the northeast, Cameroon to the east, and Equatorial Guinea and São Tomé and E Príncipe to the southwest in the Gulf of Guinea. In this post, we discuss about the neighboring countries of Nigeria and their approximate population as well as their official capital.

1. Benin

Benin, also known as the Republic of Benin, shares its western border with Nigeria. It is a small country with a diverse landscape that encompasses sandy beaches, lagoons, and the lush forests of the Pendjari National Park. Benin has a mixed economy, with agriculture, trade, and services being major contributors to its GDP. The country has a strong culture of informal cross-border trade, and its regional market in Cotonou is an important economic hub. Porto-Novo is the official capital of Benin, while Cotonou serves as its largest city and economic capital. The population of Benin is estimated to be around 12 million people. The official language of Benin is French, but Fon and Yoruba are also widely spoken.

2. Niger

Niger, also known as the Republic of Niger, is located to the north of Nigeria. It is a landlocked country with a vast Sahelian landscape that extends to the Sahara Desert in the north. Niger is one of the world's poorest countries, with a predominantly rural and agricultural economy. Agriculture, livestock farming, and informal cross-border trade are the mainstays of its economy. Uranium mining also plays a significant role in Niger's economy. The capital city of Niger is Niamey. The estimated population of Niger is around 24 million people, and the major languages spoken include French, Hausa, Zarma, Songhai, and others.

3. Chad

Chad, officially known as the Republic of Chad, shares its northeastern border with Nigeria. It is a landlocked country with diverse landscapes ranging from the Saharan desert in the north to the lush savannas in the south. Chad's economy faces various challenges due to political instability, security issues, and environmental factors such as recurring droughts. The country relies on agriculture, livestock farming, fishing, and oil exports for revenue. Chad's capital city is N'Djamena, and the estimated population is around 16 million people. The official languages of Chad are French and Arabic, while the Sara, Gor, Kanembu, and other indigenous languages are also spoken.

4. Cameroon

Cameroon, officially known as the Republic of Cameroon, borders Nigeria to the east. It is a diverse country with landscapes ranging from mountains and tropical rainforests to savannas and coastal plains. Cameroon has a mixed, market-based economy, and it is one of the largest economies in Central Africa. The country's economy is supported by sectors such as oil and gas, agriculture, manufacturing, and services. The capital city of Cameroon is Yaoundé, and the estimated population is around 26 million people. Cameroon is officially bilingual, with English and French being the official languages. Additionally, several indigenous languages like Bamileke, Fulfulde, Duala, and others are spoken.

5. Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea shares maritime boundaries with Nigeria to the southwest. It is a small Central African country located on the Gulf of Guinea. Equatorial Guinea is one of the wealthiest countries in Africa due to its abundant oil and gas reserves. However, despite its natural resource wealth, the country suffers from significant income inequality, and the majority of the population lives in poverty. The capital city of Equatorial Guinea is Malabo. The estimated population is around 1.3 million people, and the official languages are Spanish, French, and Portuguese.

6. São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe is an island nation located off the southwestern coast of Nigeria in the Gulf of Guinea. It consists of two main islands, São Tomé and Príncipe, along with several smaller islets. São Tomé and Príncipe have a small and underdeveloped economy, with agriculture, fishing, and services being the major sectors. The country is known for its cocoa and coffee production and has great potential for eco-tourism. The capital city of São Tomé and Príncipe is São Tomé. The estimated population is around 220,000 people, and the official language is Portuguese.


Each of Nigeria's neighboring countries has its own unique characteristics, culture, and economic landscape. The interactions and relationships between Nigeria and these neighboring nations contribute to regional dynamics, cross-border trade, cultural exchanges, and overall regional development.

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