Causes, Effects and Solutions of Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

Nuelson Penuel Friday, October 20, 2023 Education



Examination malpractice is a pervasive issue that undermines the integrity and credibility of the Nigerian education system. It refers to any act of dishonesty, cheating, or fraudulent behavior employed by students, teachers, or even parents during examinations to achieve undeserved marks or qualifications. This blog post aims to shed light on the various causes of examination malpractice in Nigeria, identifying the key culprits responsible for this societal menace.

What is Examination Malpractice?

Examination malpractice refers to any dishonest or fraudulent behavior employed by individuals to gain an advantage or achieve undeserved marks or qualifications during an examination. It can involve various acts such as cheating, copying from others, smuggling unauthorized materials into the examination hall, collusion with others, impersonation, bribery of invigilators or examiners, or even tampering with examination scripts or results. These unethical practices undermine the integrity and credibility of the examination process and compromise the fairness and reliability of assessment outcomes. Examination malpractice is a serious offense that is punishable by educational institutions and can have severe consequences for individuals involved, including expulsion, loss of qualifications, legal repercussions, and damage to one's reputation.

Effects of Examination Malpractice

The effects of examination malpractice are far-reaching and detrimental, not only to individuals involved but also to the education system and society as a whole. Here are some of the major effects of examination malpractice: 1. Diminished Learning and Academic Performance: Examination malpractice undermines the purpose of examinations, which is to assess knowledge and skills acquired during the learning process. When students engage in malpractice, they bypass the need to genuinely learn and understand concepts, resulting in a lack of mastery of subject matter. This leads to a decline in academic performance and hampers the overall quality of education. 2. Erosion of Integrity and Credibility: Examination malpractice erodes the integrity and credibility of the education system. It undermines the trust placed in the examination process, both by educational institutions and prospective employers. When the validity of certifications and qualifications comes into question, it becomes challenging to distinguish between genuinely competent individuals and those who have gained their qualifications through dishonest means. 3. Unfair Advantage and Inequality: Examination malpractice creates an unfair advantage for those who engage in it, enabling them to receive higher grades or qualifications that they may not deserve. This not only devalues the achievements of honest students but also perpetuates a cycle of inequality. Those who cannot or choose not to participate in malpractice are at a disadvantage, facing unfair competition and reduced opportunities in education and employment. 4. Compromised Standards: Examination malpractice compromises the standards of education. It creates a culture where success is measured solely by the ability to cheat or obtain undue advantages rather than genuine knowledge and competence. This devalues the education system, as individuals are assessed based on fraudulent means rather than actual abilities, impacting the quality of education provided. 5. Lack of Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills: Examination malpractice discourages the development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills. Instead of fostering a culture of learning, creativity, and innovation, malpractice promotes rote memorization, regurgitation of information, and reliance on shortcuts. This hampers the growth of well-rounded individuals who can contribute meaningfully to society. 6. Negative Ethical Values and Attitudes: Engaging in examination malpractice reinforces negative ethical values and attitudes, such as dishonesty, cheating, and unethical behavior. When students witness or participate in malpractice without facing significant consequences, it creates a perception that dishonesty is a viable and acceptable means to achieve success. This perpetuates a culture of corruption that can extend beyond the education system, impacting society as a whole. 7. Loss of Confidence and Self-Esteem: Students who engage in examination malpractice may experience a loss of confidence and self-esteem. While they may achieve temporary academic success through cheating, deep down, they are aware of their lack of genuine knowledge and skills. This can create feelings of guilt, anxiety, and a lack of self-worth, negatively affecting their personal growth and future prospects.

Causes of Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

1. Pressure to Succeed One of the primary causes of examination malpractice in Nigeria is the immense pressure placed on students to succeed academically. The importance of good grades has been ingrained in Nigerian culture, often leading to the belief that success in examinations is the only path to a prosperous future. This intense pressure creates a fertile ground for malpractice as individuals resort to unscrupulous means in a desperate attempt to excel. 2. Inadequate Preparation and Poor Study Habits Another contributing factor to examination malpractice is the inadequate preparation and poor study habits among students. Many students face challenges such as inadequate resources, overcrowded classrooms, and limited access to educational materials. Consequently, they may resort to cheating to cope with the overwhelming pressure to gain good grades. 3. Weak Educational System The Nigerian educational system also plays a significant role in fostering examination malpractice. The system is plagued with several long-standing issues such as poorly trained teachers, lack of motivation, and a curriculum that promotes rote learning rather than critical thinking. These systemic weaknesses create an environment conducive to malpractice as students opt for shortcuts to overcome the deficiencies in the educational system. 4. Corruption and Lack of Ethics Corruption and a general lack of ethics are deep-rooted problems in Nigerian society. Sadly, these issues find their way into the education system as well. Examination bodies, invigilators, and even teachers are sometimes complicit in facilitating malpractice. Bribery, leakage of examination questions, and collusion in the marking process are just some examples of how corruption manifests itself in the education system, further perpetuating examination malpractice. 5. High Stakes Examinations Examinations with high stakes, such as the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) examination, contribute significantly to malpractice. These examinations are gateways to higher education and professional opportunities, wherein failure can have severe consequences. The fear of failure and societal expectations associated with these exams often drive students to engage in malpractice. 6. Technological Advancements Advancements in technology have provided new avenues for examination malpractice. With increased access to the internet, students can easily access or buy exam questions and answers online. Social media platforms also enable cheating during online examinations by facilitating the sharing of answers or engaging in real-time communication with others. These technological advancements have made it increasingly challenging for examination bodies to combat malpractice effectively. 7. Parental Pressure and Involvement Parents, too, play a role in causing examination malpractice. Some parents put immense pressure on their children to excel, often pushing them towards unethical practices. A few even go as far as bribing invigilators or examiners to ensure their children's success. The involvement of parents in malpractice not only enables the behavior but also perpetuates a cycle of dishonesty that can have long-lasting effects.

Solutions of Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

Solving the problem of examination malpractice in Nigeria requires a multi-faceted approach involving various stakeholders, from policymakers to educators, parents, and students themselves. Here are some key solutions that can help address the issue: 1. Strengthening the Educational System: Improving the Nigerian educational system is a fundamental step towards combating examination malpractice. This includes providing adequate resources, training and supporting teachers, reducing overcrowded classrooms, and updating the curriculum to encourage critical thinking and problem-solving skills. By focusing on quality education, students will be better prepared and less likely to resort to malpractice. 2. Ethical Education and Awareness Campaigns: Implementing comprehensive ethical education programs within schools can help instill values of integrity, honesty, and ethical behavior in students. These programs should emphasize the negative consequences of malpractice and highlight the importance of fair competition and genuine learning. Public awareness campaigns targeting parents, teachers, and the general public can also contribute to changing societal attitudes towards examinations. 3. Stringent Measures and Penalties: Educational institutions and examination bodies should establish strict measures and penalties for malpractice. This can include rigorous monitoring during examinations, utilizing advanced technological tools to detect cheating, and imposing severe consequences for those caught engaging in malpractice. Penalties should be enforced consistently and communicated effectively to deter students from taking part in dishonest practices. 4. Professional Development and Monitoring of Teachers: Teachers play a vital role in promoting ethical behavior and discouraging malpractice. By investing in continuous professional development programs for teachers, they can stay updated with effective teaching methods, evaluation techniques, and ways to prevent and detect malpractice. Regular monitoring and evaluation of teachers can also help identify and address any potential involvement in malpractice. 5. Technological Solutions: Embracing technological advancements can aid in combating examination malpractice. This includes implementing biometric verification systems to ensure the identity of examinees, using secure online examination platforms with anti-cheating measures, and employing plagiarism detection software to identify copied content in answer scripts. Examining bodies should also collaborate with internet service providers to restrict access to exam-related materials during the examination period. 6. Parental Engagement: Parents have a critical role to play in addressing examination malpractice. They should be actively involved in their children's education, promoting honest practices, and discouraging cheating. Parent-teacher associations can be established to educate parents about the negative consequences of malpractice and encourage their participation in building an integrity-driven education system. 7. Encouraging Alternative Assessment Methods: Relying solely on high-stakes examinations can contribute to the prevalence of malpractice. Incorporating a variety of assessment methods, such as project work, portfolios, presentations, and practical demonstrations, can reduce the excessive emphasis on exams. This shift towards more comprehensive evaluation methods encourages genuine learning and reduces the pressure to engage in malpractice. 8. Collaboration with Security Agencies: Examination bodies should collaborate with law enforcement agencies to tackle criminal networks involved in the sale of fake question papers, leaked exam materials, and other forms of malpractice. This collaboration can help dismantle these networks, prosecute offenders, and send a strong message that malpractice will not be tolerated.


Examination malpractice is a pressing issue that compromises the quality and credibility of education in Nigeria. This blog post has highlighted several causes, shedding light on the societal and systemic factors at play. To combat this menace, there needs to be a collective effort from all stakeholders, including policymakers, educators, parents, and students. Strengthening the educational system, fostering a culture of ethics and integrity, and reforming examination policies are essential steps towards eradicating examination malpractice and creating a fair and merit-driven educational environment in Nigeria.

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