Culture, History and Origins of Akwa Ibom State

Nuelson Penuel Tuesday, February 13, 2024 Basis



Nestled in the South-South region of Nigeria, Akwa Ibom State is a land of breathtaking landscapes, vibrant cultures, and a rich historical heritage. Known as "The Land of Promise," Akwa Ibom boasts a fascinating history and origin that dates back centuries. In this blog post, we will delve into the origins of Akwa Ibom State and explore the historical tapestry that has shaped this diverse and dynamic region.

Ancient Origins:

To understand the origins of Akwa Ibom, we must journey back to the ancient times when various ethnic groups thrived in the area. Historically, the region was inhabited by the Efik, Ibibio, Anang, Oron, and other ethnic groups who had their unique cultural identities and governance systems. These groups were renowned for their fishing prowess, intricate craftwork, and agricultural practices.

European Influence:

Like many other parts of Nigeria, European explorers and colonizers arrived in the area, leaving a lasting impact on Akwa Ibom's history. The Portuguese navigators were the first to make contact in the 15th century, establishing trade relationships with the local communities. Later, the British Empire gained control through their colonization efforts, introducing education, Christianity, and a modern administrative system.

Creation of Akwa Ibom State:

The creation of Akwa Ibom State was a significant event in Nigerian history, marking the recognition and establishment of a separate state for the people residing in the region. The decision to create Akwa Ibom State was driven by a variety of factors, including the desire for more effective governance, development, and the recognition of the distinct cultural identity of the people. Before the creation of Akwa Ibom State, the region was part of the larger Cross River State. Cross River State itself was created in 1967, following the division of the former Eastern Region into several states. However, the people of the area felt that their unique cultural identity and developmental needs were not adequately addressed within the larger state structure. The movement for the creation of a separate state gained momentum in the 1980s. Various groups and individuals, including political leaders, traditional rulers, and community organizations, advocated for the establishment of an independent state. These groups argued that a separate state would bring proper representation, faster development, and improved governance to the region. On September 23, 1987, the military government of Nigeria, under General Ibrahim Babangida, acceded to the demands of the people and officially created Akwa Ibom State. The state was named after the Qua Iboe River, one of the prominent water bodies in the area. Since its creation, Akwa Ibom State has made significant strides in various sectors. The government has prioritized infrastructure development, education, healthcare, and agriculture, among others. The state has seen the establishment of industries, the development of tourist attractions, and the improvement of social amenities, contributing to the overall growth and development of the region.


Akwa Ibom is located in the southern part of Nigeria, in the Niger Delta region. It is bordered by Cross River State to the east, Rivers State to the west, Abia State to the southeast, and Imo State to the south. It has a coastline along the Atlantic Ocean to the south. The capital city of Akwa Ibom is Uyo. The latitude and longitude of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, are approximately 5.0035° N and 7.9360° E, respectively. These coordinates indicate its location on the global map.

Land Area

The land area of Akwa Ibom State is approximately 7,081 square kilometers (2,735 square miles). This makes it one of the smaller states in Nigeria in terms of land size. However, despite its relatively small land area, Akwa Ibom is densely populated and has a significant economic and cultural impact in the region. The state's land area encompasses a variety of landscapes, including coastal plains, mangrove forests, rivers, and some hilly areas towards the east. These diverse geographical features contribute to the state's natural beauty and the richness of its natural resources.


The population of Akwa Ibom State is approximately 6.03 million people. This makes it one of the most populous states in Nigeria. The population density of Akwa Ibom is around 850 people per square kilometer. The state is home to various ethnic groups, including the Ibibio, Annang, and Oron, who form the majority of the population. Akwa Ibom's population has been steadily growing over the years, driven by factors such as natural population increase, rural-urban migration, and the state's economic prospects. The state's population density, coupled with its growing population, emphasizes the need for sustainable development and infrastructure to support the people's well-being.

Economic Activities

Akwa Ibom State has a diverse and growing economy. It is known for its rich natural resources, such as oil and gas deposits, which form a significant part of the state's revenue. The state's strategic location along the coast also contributes to its economic development, particularly in the areas of agriculture, fishing, and tourism. The oil and gas industry is a major driver of the state's economy, with oil companies operating in the state, including ExxonMobil, Total, and Chevron. The revenue generated from oil and gas production is used to fund various developmental projects and initiatives in the state. Agriculture is another important sector in Akwa Ibom's economy, with the state being a major producer of crops like oil palm, cocoa, rubber, and cassava. The government has implemented policies to encourage agricultural productivity and ensure food security. The state has also seen growth in the tourism sector, thanks to its beautiful scenery, including beaches, waterfalls, and wildlife reserves. The government has promoted tourism as a means of diversifying the economy and attracting investment. In recent years, the state has made efforts to attract investments in other sectors, such as manufacturing and services, to further drive economic growth and create employment opportunities for its citizens.

Cultural Heritage:

The cultural heritage of Akwa Ibom State is an intricate tapestry woven with the rich traditions, customs, and artistic expressions of its diverse ethnic groups. These cultural practices are deeply rooted in the history of the region and have been passed down through generations, serving as a source of identity and pride for the people. Akwa Ibom State is home to several prominent ethnic groups, including the Efik, Ibibio, Anang, Oron, and others, each with its unique cultural heritage.

1. Efik:

The Efik people have a vibrant cultural heritage that is characterized by colorful festivals, intricate traditional attire, and a rich culinary tradition. The annual Calabar Carnival, often referred to as "Africa's Biggest Street Party," attracts tourists from far and wide, showcasing the dynamic dances, elaborate costumes, and pulsating music of the Efik people. The Efik kingdom of Calabar was also a major center for the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, and remnants of this historical period can still be seen in the old colonial architectures and museums in the region.

2. Ibibio:

The Ibibio people are known for their unique cultural practices, folklore, and artistic expressions. Traditional dances, such as the Ekombi and Ekpe masquerades, are performed during special occasions and festivals. The Ekpe secret society, with its intricate initiation rites and symbolism, holds a significant place in Ibibio culture. The Ibibio also have a distinct traditional clothing called the "Ini Obong" attire, adorned with intricate embroidery and beadwork.

3. Anang:

The Anang people are renowned for their artistic talents and craftsmanship. They are famous for their woodcarvings, traditional musical instruments like the "Ubok Ekpo," and exquisite woven raffia handicrafts. The Nka Ikemesit Mkpo mask, used during ceremonies and cultural festivals, is an iconic symbol of Anang culture. The creativity and beauty of Anang artistry continue to inspire and captivate both locals and visitors.

4. Oron:

The Oron people have a distinct cultural heritage characterized by their fishing prowess, seafaring traditions, and colorful festivals. The Ekpe masquerades, known as "Ekpo Okon," are an integral part of Oron culture, serving as a link between the living and the ancestors. The Ekpiri Nung Fever is a renowned Oron festival that celebrates the bountiful harvest and showcases the vibrant music, dances, and rituals of the Oron people. These are just a few glimpses into the diverse cultural heritage of Akwa Ibom State. The region is also known for its traditional cuisine, which includes delicacies such as Afang soup, Edikang Ikong, Atama soup, and various seafood dishes. The art of storytelling, folklore, and traditional beliefs are deeply ingrained in the fabric of everyday life, allowing for the preservation and transmission of cultural values across generations.

Historical Landmarks:

Akwa Ibom State is dotted with historical landmarks that tell the story of its past. The National Museum of Colonial History in Ikot Abasi showcases artifacts and memorabilia from the colonial era, providing valuable insights into the region's history. Ikot Ekpene, known as the "Raffia City," features the famous Long Juju Shrine, an ancient religious site with historical significance. Additionally, the Ibeno Beach, Efi Lake, and the numerous traditional palaces are cultural and historical attractions that draw visitors from far and wide.

Wrapping up:

Akwa Ibom State's history and origin are intertwined with the varied ethnic groups and influences that have shaped its identity over centuries. From the ancient times to the post-colonial era, this region has witnessed the rise and fall of kingdoms, the impact of external forces, and the resilience of its diverse cultures. Exploring the historical tapestry of Akwa Ibom State is not only an enlightening journey but also an opportunity to appreciate and celebrate the diverse heritage of this remarkable Nigerian state.

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