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Ebolaviruses are pathogenic agents associated with a severe, potentially fatal, systemic disease in man and great apes. Five species of ebolaviruses have been identified in west or equatorial Africa. Once the more virulent forms enter the human population, transmission occurs primarily through contact with infected body fluids and can result in major epidemics in under-resourced settings. These viruses cause a disease characterised by systemic viral replication, immune suppression, abnormal inflammatory responses, major fluid and electrolyte losses, and high mortality. Despite recent progress on vaccines, and with no licensed prophylaxis or treatment available, case management is essentially supportive with management of severe multiple organ failure resulting from immune-mediated cell damage. Ebola virus have substantial epidemic potential as shown by the 2013-2016 West Africa outbreak. This outbreak was unprecedented in scale, with more than 28,000 confirmed cases and 11,000 thousand death. An unprecedented response was implemented after several thousands of deaths had already occurred. The delay in the response negatively affected local perceptions of the reactivity of the international community.


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