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Category: Project Material



The present day construction industry needs an environmental friendly material which should withstand its material properties throughouts its estimated life span. The material should be aesthetically pleasing, maintain balance in ecology of environment in order to take health care of it and wastages should be minimized and that material is concrete. Concrete may be affected by the presence of pollutants in the environment such as carbon di-oxide, and severe environmental conditions such as marine environment, harsh environment (high & elevated temperature), high humid regions, and et.,. These environments lead to deterioration of concrete by effecting plastic shrinkage, strength loss at later ages, decrease in compressive strength, pore structure, corrosion of steel, and decrease in service life. The binder and fine aggregate used were Ordinary Portland cement and river sand respectively, while potable water was used for mixing and curing.The constituent materials were batched by weight. Concrete mix ratio was 1:2:4 and water/cement ratio was 0.5 and the size of steel bar is 16mm. The materials phase of this research evaluated fresh concrete properties such as slump, and the key mechanical properties of hardened PKS concrete, that is, compressive strength, push-out test and density. Also sieve analysis was conducted on Palm kernel shell and river sharp sand. Tests were carried out for bulk density, compressive strength of the concrete cubes and push-out test specimen which resulted casting and testing 36 cubes (12 cubes each for normal, costal and industrial environment) consisting of testing 27 PKSC push-out test specimen to evaluate the bond performance and 9 PKSC cubes at 7, 21, and 28-days curing, respectively to obtain an optimum mix design. The water used for curing for normal environment was freshwater, water for costal environment was saltwater and water for industrial environment was stimulated with calcium trioxocarbonate (CaCO3). The test results revealed that for the successive curing ages (7, 21, 28-days) of specimens cast in various environments and bond resistance result of push-out specimen are; 1.2, 1.42, 1.28 for 7days, 1.06, 1.05, 0.93 for 21days and 0.93, 1.11, 1.13 for 28days respectively and two types of bond failures, namely, splitting and shear failures were observed.


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