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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS OF DRIED Irvingia gabonensis SEEDS (OGBONO) AND FRESH GARDEN EGG LEAVES ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF DIABETIC ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

Abstract/Description


The study examined the chemical composition and the effects of Solanum aethiopicum leaves (garden egg) and Irvingia gabonensis seed (ogbono) on selected biochemical indices of alloxan induced adult wistar rats. Fresh Solanum aethiopicum leaves were plucked, sorted, washed with clean water and allowed to drain. The pulverized leaves were packaged in a plastic container and preserved in the refrigerator. Dried Irvingia gabonensis seeds were sorted washed and shade dried. The ground seeds were packaged in a plastic container and kept in the refrigerator. Proximate analysis was carried using standard methods. This analysis showed that Solanum aethiopicum leaves contained moisture (77.23%), fibre (2.61%), carbohydrate (10.88%) and protein (8.14%) while Irvingia gabonensis seeds had moisture (6.0%), fibre (2.27%), carbohydrate (56.07%), protein (10.52%) and fats (24.18%) content. Pro-vitamin A (2030 i.u), C (14.36mg/100g) and E (8.10mg/100g) were present in Solanum aethiopicum leaves. Vit.E (4.08mg) was found in Irvingia gabonensis seeds. Mineral level revealed Iron (2.04 mg/100g), magnesium (160.48 mg/100g), calcium (239.58mg/100g), potassium (40.25mg/100g) sodium (24.07mg/100g) in Solanum aethiopicum leaves. Mineral composition in the seed revealed Iron (5.27 mg/100g), magnesium (19.10 mg/100g), zinc (1.68 mg/100g), calcium (372.46 mg/100g), potassium (40.49 mg/100g), sodium (25.73 mg/100g) and copper (2.32 mg/100g). Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemical and antinutrient analysis showed presence of tannin (20.93 mg/100g) in Solanum aethiopicum leaves while Irvingia gabonensis seeds contained tannin (2.32 mg/100g), alkaloids (5.15 mg/100g). There were seven groups of rats in this study. Six groups of rats were fed rat chow supplemented with Solanum aethiopicum leaves and Irvingia gabonensis seed. The experimental groups were diabetically induced with alloxan powder of 150mg/kg mixed with 10mls of diluted water. Group 1 was rats fed rat chow and water ad libitum only as control. Groups 2-4 were rats fed 5, 10 and 15g/kgBW of Solanum aethiopicum leaves and Groups 5-7 were rats fed 5, 10 and 15g/kgBW of Irvingia gabonensis seeds. Biochemical analyses (lipid profile and heamatological indices) were determined using standard methods. Serum cholesterol levels decreased in all the groups of rats fed the two test diets. The final result of serum cholesterol in the rats fed Solanum aethiopicum showed significant difference (p<0.05). There was also significant difference in cholesterol values of Irvingia gabonensis. The group fed 10g/kgBW Solanum aethiopicum decreased (18.52mmol/l) LDL of the rats. There were decreases of LDL in all the groups of rats fed 5g, 10g and 15g/kgBW of Irvingia gabonensis (21.74, 1.60 and 23.53mmol/l). The LDL tables differed significantly (p<0.05). The groups fed Solanum aethiopicum had increased HDL. The group fed diets containing 15g/kgBW Irvingia gabonensis reduced the (7.69mol/l) HDL of rats compared to the other groups. The HDL tables differed significantly. Triglycerides increased in all the groups of rats fed Solanum aethiopicum. There was 19.10mmol/l reduction of triglycerides in the group of rats fed 15g/kgBW Irvingia gabonensis seeds. The rats fed 5g/kgBW Solanum aethiopicum leaves decreased the (4.65) PCV value of the rats compared to other groups fed this diet.

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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS OF DRIED Irvingia Gabonensis SEEDS (OGBONO) AND FRESH GARDEN EGG LEAVES ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF DIABETIC ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS